Juliet Baillie (Birkbeck College University of London), Photography and Citizenship: 1930s Camera Club Education in London’s East End

PHRC seminar, Tuesday December 3rd 2013

Seminar review by Ela Farrell

This month’s PHRC research lecture was given by Juliet Baillie who recently submitted her AHRC-funded doctoral thesis, “Amateur Photographers, Camera Clubs and Pictorial Photography in 1930s London”, at the Department of History of Art, Birkbeck, university of London. Drawing on her research into the Cambridge and Bethnal Green Boys Club photographic section of the 1930s, Baillie presented a paper that revolved around the intersection of photographic technical and aesthetic education, and other ideas about productive civil behaviours in Britain of that time. Baillie explained how the camera clubs of the 1930s marked a significant shift away from the Victorian notion of leisure and individual reform, replacing these with ideas about collective improvement. According to her work, the Club offered the potential for an aesthetic education, lacking elsewhere, which led to a ‘particularised photography’. Using basic camera equipment and tutored by professionals, members of the Cambridge and Bethnal Green Camera Club produced images in a pictorial tradition, which were then displayed in exhibitions and competitions. According to Baille’s research, the Camera Club served as an indicator of the belief that photographic education could act as a catalyst to social improvement for active members, providing the boys with social skills and future job prospects that would lead to their positive engagement in society as ‘good citizens’. In my view, Juliet Baillie’s contribution to the understanding of amateur photography in the interwar years will go a long way to redressing a current imbalance in the literature about the many diverse photographic practices carried out within the social domain at large.


Dr Nicoletta Leonardi, (University of California EAP Florence), Photography and Materiality in Italy in the 1960s and 70s: Mario Cresci’s Work Between Urban Activism and Participatory Planning

PHRC seminar, Tuesday November 5th 2013

Seminar review by Francesca Issatt

Italian photography has been criticised for being primitive. But is it actually a case of cultural delay, or rather of cultural difference? About a month ago, Dr. Nicoletta Leonardi delivered an eye-opening lecture about urban planning and photography in 1960s and 70s Italy. Held in the PHRC as part of the Centre’s postgraduate lecture series “Research Seminars in Cultures of Photography”, Dr. Leonardi’s talk investigated the roots for the perception of Italian photography in association with outdated conceptual frameworks, and recontextualised it in relation to the cultural and political circumstances that were prevalent in Italy during that period.

Having just completed writing a book that explores these issues in depth, Dr. Leonardi focused her lecture on the visual work of one photographer who used images to subvert the political regime in Italy of the second half of the twentieth century. Mario Cresci trained and worked in a number of different visual disciplines. Having graduated from the Venice School of Design he was employed by a council in southern Italy to help to materialise a new housing project. Around this time, the south suffered greatly from emigration; a new generation of southern Italians appears to have preferred to move away from the rural part of the country to the cities of the north. Working as part of a collective of architects, sociologists and other artists, Cresci and his colleagues used participatory planning and active citizenship to involve the senior generations of local southerners in the process of urban innovation, with a view to developing the south of Italy and making it more appealing to the younger generation who held modernisation in high esteem. Cresci used photography to communicate complex ideas about design and renovation to the local people of south Italy, most of whom could not read, write or speak any languages other than the particular local dialect.

More specifically, Dr. Leonardi described a photographic series that Cresci made, consisting of group portraits of families captured in their homes. Cresci asked them to present to his camera other images of their families and share with him information about their ancestors, family identity, their past, as well as about their desires for the future. This helped the local people see their place in history and to fully realise as well as articulate what social needs they wished this housing project to fulfill. Active urban planning also helped the local community to resuscitate their self esteem. Furthermore, it assisted them to understand what they could do to secure a better future for themselves and their families.

The history of photography is often filtered through an Anglo-American perspective and in association with the study of image aesthetics. In this respect, it was refreshing to learn from Dr. Leonardi about a photographer who is not so well known outside of Italy, and whose use of photography has not been confined to “white cube” spaces. Her discussion of Cresci’s work highlighted the significance of photographs as material objects that hold the potential to participate in wide social processes, beyond the domain of visual aesthetics, and actively challenge as well as reshape prevailing political circumstances. Dr. Leonardi explained with much clarity how the value of photographic images differs from one culture to another and why photographic practices that do not conform to common, canonical aesthetic conventions must not be excluded from the study of photographic histories or labeled as primitive.

PHRC Seminars – Spring Term 2014


Tuesdays 4 – 6pm
Edith Murphy Building
[check rooms for each seminar]
All welcome, no need to book, just turn up.

January 14th (Room: EM 1.27)
Professor Jennifer Tucker (Wesleyan/University of York)
“Facing Facts: Photographic Portraiture and the Mass Image in Late-Victorian Law and Popular Culture”

February 4th (Room: EM 1.27)
Dr Erika Hanna (University of Edinburgh)
‘Photographs and Truth and the Start of the Troubles: the Scarman and Widgery Tribunals (Northern Ireland 1969-72)

March 4th (Room: EM 1.09)
Paul Lowe (University of the Arts London)
Testimony of Light: Bearing Witness to War Crimes in the Former Yugoslavia, 1991-2011